Phytophthora capsici is a devastating oomycete that affects solanaceous, cucurbitaceous, fabaceous, and other crops in the United States (US) and worldwide. The release of the P. capsici genome allows for design of robust markers for genetic studies. We identified and characterized microsatellites in the P. capsici transcriptome. A subset of 50 microsatellites were assayed in a diverse set of P. capsici isolates and evaluated for polymorphism. Polymorphic microsatellites were confirmed by fragment analysis, and 12 were used for population characterization of 50 P. capsici isolates from different states, hosts, and mating types. Analysis of genetic relationship among isolates revealed significant geographic structure by state. Our findings highlight the usefulness of these 12 microsatellites to characterize the population structure of P. capsici and potential transferability to closely-related Phytophthora spp. since markers are located in coding regions. Our markers will facilitate genetic characterization and complement phenotypic studies of P. capsici populations, which may assist in deployment of disease management strategies.